Throughout the Decade, governments are encouraged to incorporate ESD within education systems, strategies and development plans, as well as promote public awareness of wider participation in these activities. Other than DESD, the governments of the world, together with agencies of the United Nations launched three other initiatives, all of which agree on the central importance of basic education and the need to extend and enhance its quality.
An analysis of these initiatives indicates the complementary role they play towards ensuring a sustainable world. Teaching and training are at the heart of the knowledge society. Good basic education is the result of the interaction of multiple factors, the most important of which is increasingly recognized to be quality teachers and teaching ADEA ; ADEA ; Anderson ; Boyle et al. During the s, UNESCO identified teacher-education institutions and teacher educators as key change agents in reorienting education to address sustainability. Kenya, like many other nations around the world, embraced the need for education to achieve sustainability Kenya, for example, developed an Education for Sustainable Development ESD Implementation Strategy that was to serve as a guideline for ESD implementation across all sectors.
The rationale for launching an ESD implementation program was to develop awareness within the educational community and the public that reorienting education to achieve sustainability is essential. If educational stakeholders, especially teacher trainers, are unaware of the critical linkages between education and sustainable development, reorienting education to address sustainable development will not occur.
However, so far, only limited progress has been made. This lack of progress may be attributed in part to a lack of vision or awareness, policy framework and funding. Despite the conceived implementation strategies from multiple fronts, there is no tangible evidence of success.
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In , Kenya adapted a rationalized curriculum. In this revised curriculum, national goals and level objectives for both primary and secondary schools were revised and re-stated to make them more responsive to the contemporary needs of the society. The number of subjects was reduced, general and specific objectives were with a corresponding reorganization of the content.
The reorganization was meant to address overloads and overlaps within and across subjects.
These were infused in appropriate topics in various subjects. This article discusses the role of the teacher educators in reorienting teacher education to address sustainability. Cs in Kenya were scrutinized with a view of establishing the extend to which Education for Sustainable Development ESD has been incorporated in teacher education programmes. Both the analysis and the literature review provide no evidence that ESD has become an integral part of most teacher education programmes, and that there is no teacher education initiative that has strategically set out to mainstream sustainability into the core of teacher education programmes particularly in light of current and developing trends in education in Kenya.
There is therefore, almost a blank spot in both the body of knowledge on teacher education and the actual practices of many teacher educators with regard to ESD. The article concludes with a discussion of ways to remedy the situation.
The interpretation of these concepts stressed the urgency to consider the economic, social and political underpinnings of the problem. Following this, the Conference in Rio de Janeiro emphasized the significance of sustainable development in Chapter 36 of Agenda 21 United Nations, This document introduced the principle of sustainability and declared the necessity to apply it to economic, social and environmental aspects. This chapter identified four major thrusts to begin the work of ESD:. It is worth noting that the first priority of ESD as outlined in Chapter 36 was the promotion of basic education.
The United Nations UN identified education as key to the move towards sustainability.
10 trends changing global higher education
People around the world recognize that current economic development trends are not sustainable and that public awareness, education, and training are key to moving society toward sustainability. Education for Sustainable Development ESD is an essential part of a larger conversation regarding quality of life for all the inhabitants of the Earth. Agenda 21 states that efforts on multiple fronts are needed to create a more sustainable world. The 40 chapters of Agenda 21 describe a myriad of initiatives that must be put in place for nations to successfully pursue sustainable development. We cannot imagine how the people of all nations could move toward a more sustainable world without the contribution of teacher trainers or college tutors as often referred to in Kenya from around the globe.
The objectives for the DESD were, and still are to:. This focus on standardization and high-stakes testing has led to a narrow view of what counts as teaching and learning Franciosi, ; Hargreaves, ; Lipman, ; Luke, ; Ravitch, ; Stewart, and ultimately fails to inspire critical and creative pedagogies. African societies and other societies attribute other values to environment, not only economic value. In an article on development evaluations, Patton , p.
That means assessing needs, identifying solutions, targeting populations, setting goals, procuring resources, implementing programs, and, of course, evaluating results [. Of course, imperfections exist: inadequately assessed needs; fuzzy and conflicting goals; poorly defined targets; insufficient resources; and sloppy implementation. But those are precisely the problems evaluations expose.
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It is acknowledged that such accountability information is already required by many donors and will increasingly be needed to receive continued program support Zint, , p. These organizations were criticised for promoting the oxymoronic goal of maintaining economic growth, re-distribution of wealth and keeping the health of the ecosystem intact Rees, ; Mander and Goldsmith, It is also questionable whether the objective of balancing social, economic and environmental triad is achievable, and whether human equality and prosperity as well as population growth can be achieved with the present rate of natural degradation Giddens, Critiques of top-down development projects have noted that foreign aid, structural adjustment programs and programs to promote development may have caused more harm than good in exacerbating global inequalities and have largely failed in addressing ecological crises Goldsmith, ; Shiva, ; Easterly, ; Bodley, ; Oliver-Smith, Biological resources provide the raw materials for livelihoods, sustenance, medicines, trade, tourism, and industry.
Genetic diversity provides the basis for new breeding programs, improved crops, enhanced agricultural production, and food security. In its focus on integrating social and economic interests with those of environmental protection, ESD represents a radical departure from the original EE in taking the focus on solving environmental problems towards social equity issues Kopnina, a. The values 15,2 acknowledged to nature are instrumental in character, in the sense that the natural environment is only useful in as far as it provides resources that can be used to satisfy human wants Lundmarck, For example, while ethical assumptions underlying sustainable development condemn practices like child labour, gender, class, ethnic and racial discrimination, daily mechanized slaughter of farm animals for human consumption is rarely disputed Shepard, While combating social problems are acknowledged in all ESD objectives, speciesism discrimination against other species is considered to be a non-issue as overview of ESD indicators suggest Reid et al.
There are thus two serious challenges associated with the fuzziness of ESD objectives. In addressing the first issue, we may reflect that since the objectives of ESD are not always clear and in some cases contested and criticized, opening ESD up for multiple interpretations and thus plural evaluative standards might lead to misguided efforts in measuring something that has questionable value.
However, it is not clear whether these national evaluation studies or best practice examples can be universally applicable in other nations, as many anthropologists have pointed out Owens, The Ways forward section of this article will discuss how such methodology can be useful. Nations where ESD is practiced differ greatly in their socio-political priorities, as do the forms of democracy surrounding their educational institutions, as well a host of other historical, socio-cultural, political, ecological, and economic factors.
Some types of ESD focused on social equity and health might be more appropriate in some circumstances, for example, the issues concerned with reproductive health in developing countries; while more environment-effects issues might be more appropriate in others, such as the issues concerned with consequences of high level of consumption in more affluent Western societies Kopnina, a, c.
Diversity of institutional settings can also be interpreted in the context of wider socio-cultural influences in which both formal and informal learning takes place e. More saliently, anthropological involvement with the complexity and inherent Education for contradictions of development Lewis, ; Mosse, , as well as the propensity of sustainable many anthropologists to analyze field sites in developing countries, add valuable data on how ESD in developing countries differ from that in developed ones.
World Trends in Education for Sustainable Development
While formal education becomes more valuable in local communities, traditional knowledge becomes devalued Baines and Zarger, First of all we want to make clear that we are not able yet to give a clear definition of evaluation vs research and more specifically, how to define evaluation consistently with program evaluation. To give such a definition another analysis is needed which will be developed in the follow-up research.
Since evaluation practice can still fall the victim of fallacious ideologies, the distinction between two kinds of evaluations: summative and formative, can be useful Scriven, According to Patton , p. Formative evaluations help programs get ready for summative evaluation by improving program processes and providing feedback about strengths and weaknesses that appear to affect goal attainment.
Both generic objectives such as protection of environment and local contexts and interpretations can help to inform both summative and formative evaluations. In terms of content of ESD programs, the issues concerned with reproductive health might be more appropriate in developing countries; while the issues concerned with consequences of high level of consumption may be more appropriate in more affluent Western societies Kopnina, c.
EfS, seen from a wider anthropological perspective, could thus be conceived as something that used to in traditional societies happen outside of institutional confines and does not necessarily involve any formal structures promoted by Western sponsors or donors. Such a position on ESD will be much harder to evaluate. Methodology of ESD Once the aims of ESD are established, another challenge is to devise the most efficient and strategic method of achieving these objectives Rickinson, , As in the case of EE programs, ESD programs have had mainly activity and output objectives rather than outcome and impact objectives.
According to Zint , when EE programs have had outcome objectives, they tended to have environmental knowledge and attitudinal outcomes, often equating them with behavioral outcomes.
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There are many theories to explain the widespread rhetoric-behaviors gap between what seems to be desired by general public and what is actually happening Kollmuss and Agyeman, Because environmental problems go to the heart of domestic policies, such as energy and transport policy, citizens appear to live in a paradoxical situation where society increasingly talks about the seriousness of environmental problems although concerted action is missing Lidskog and Elander, , pp. Giddens has noted that modern society is confronted by a number of social, political, and other problems and may fail to prioritize something that seems too abstract and too unpleasant — such as ecological crisis Giddens, If people were also asked to choose between different priorities, such as combating climate change or ensuring that no jobs or economic benefits are lost, people tend to choose social and economic priorities over what seem to be more distant worries about environmental protection Lundmarck, Booth reflects: People often become activists when they or those close to them are under threat.
Those likely to suffer most from climate change, including other species and future generations, tend to elicit less felt concern. What type of methodological approach is then needed for Education for ESD to achieve its objectives?
‘Business as usual’ will not achieve global education goals
Which methods are then available to make students not sustainable only knowledgeable but also involved and motivated? Many methods were proposed: learning in nature Kahn and Kellert, ; Korhonen and Lappalainen, ; Wells and Lekies, , social learning Wals, , action competence Breiting, ; Jensen and Schnack, , citizenship Kerr, , and dialogical learning Meijers, ; Kuijpers and Meijers, , and variations and combinations of those. Through this approach, students are taught not just about personal actions and responsibility but competency for collective actions targeted to pressure government in taking decisions that go beyond the sphere of influence of individual citizens Chawla and Cushing, While this strategic approach might be very useful for EE, its relevance for ESD, and particularly evaluation of the best strategy to achieve ESD objectives however defined is less evident.
On the other hand, if students are encouraged, empowered and otherwise motivated to participate in the process of co-creation of the ESD program objectives, there is no guarantee that they will come up with the most strategic decisions in regard to social, economic and environmental challenges. Learning to understand and respect nature through interacting with it might be a legitimate objective for EE, but not necessarily for ESD.
Without critical reflection on what ESD entails and whether the triple bottom line or SEE approach is useful , evaluating ESD methodology could only inform us what works best in teaching a certain perspective, not in how empirically valid or ethically sound this perspective is. Benett quoted in Zint proposed that ESD programs should first identify the SEE conditions they seek to address, then identify the practices that can change these conditions, as well as the knowledge, attitudes, skills, aspirations or intentions that can foster changes in these practices. However, if neither objectives nor methodology involved in achieving these objectives are critically examined, evaluating ESD programs may lead to questionable outcomes.
This complexity stems primarily from the fact that the very objectives of ESD need further critical reflection. Remarkably, while Jickling , p. In reflecting upon the objectives of ESD, cross-cultural applicability and issues associated with the most efficient methodology of teaching, evaluating ESD programs may need to meet a number of challenges presented by the theory and practice of ESD. The objective of these evaluations should be broader then just accessing efficacy of ESD in concrete national or institutional contexts. It would be desirable if these evaluations were accompanied by interdisciplinary review involving ethical and cross-cultural assessment.
Kopnina a, b, c, a, b, rejected the usefulness on goal-free evaluations as they were not found to be suited for ESD. Participatory and empowerment evaluations were found most suitable for the task.
Ways forward In the recent evaluative study of EE published in this journal, Schneiderman and Freihoefer used the new ecological paradigm NEP questionnaire for tackling environmental attitudes. However, previous studies of sustainable NEP did not found to address deep ecology values or explicitly engaged with the interface between environmental ethics and sustainable development Lundmarck, development ; Kopnina, b, c.