Soil Erosion by Water. Wind Erosion. Chemical Soil Degradation.
SLM-10306 Land Degradation and Remediation
Soil Pollution. Back Matter Pages Soil conservation Soil degradation Soil deterioration Soil erosion Soil pollution Soil quality depletion Soil remediation. The contributions are drawn from a wide range of countries and discuss diverse organism and habitat types. They collectively provide a snap-shot of the View Product.
Biodiversity Conservation: Problems and Policies. This book reports the more policy-oriented results of the Biodiversity programme of the Royal Swedish This book reports the more policy-oriented results of the Biodiversity programme of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Beijer Institute.
The programme brought economists and ecologists together to consider where the problem in biodiversity loss really lies, what costs it Biological Degradation of Wastes. The cumulative effects of pollution have led, in recent years, to increased public concern, which The cumulative effects of pollution have led, in recent years, to increased public concern, which is resulting in stricter legislation on the discharge of wastes in whatever state they are present: gaseous, liquid or solid.
The treatment and disposal of Biomanagement of Metal-Contaminated Soils. Heavy-metal contamination is one of the world's major environmental problems, posing significant risks to agro-ecosystems. Conventional technologies employed for heavy-metal remediation have often been expensive and disruptive. This book provides comprehensive, state-of-the-art coverage of the natural, sustainable Conservation Laws in Variational Thermo-Hydrodynamics.
This study is one of the first attempts to bridge the theoretical models of variational This study is one of the first attempts to bridge the theoretical models of variational dynamics of perfect fluids and some practical approaches worked out in chemical and mechanical engineering in the field newly called thermo-hydrodynamics.
Soil quality, structure, stability and texture can be affected by the loss of soil. The breakdown of aggregates and the removal of smaller particles or entire layers of soil or organic matter can weaken the structure and even change the texture. Textural changes can in turn affect the water-holding capacity of the soil, making it more susceptible to extreme conditions such as drought.
The off-site impacts of soil erosion by water are not always as apparent as the on-site effects. Eroded soil, deposited down slope, inhibits or delays the emergence of seeds, buries small seedlings and necessitates replanting in the affected areas. Also, sediment can accumulate on down-slope properties and contribute to road damage.
Sediment that reaches streams or watercourses can accelerate bank erosion, obstruct stream and drainage channels, fill in reservoirs, damage fish habitat and degrade downstream water quality. Pesticides and fertilizers, frequently transported along with the eroding soil, contaminate or pollute downstream water sources, wetlands and lakes. Because of the potential seriousness of some of the off-site impacts, the control of "non-point" pollution from agricultural land is an important consideration.
Under the right conditions it can cause major losses of soil and property Figure 7. Figure 7. Wind erosion can be severe on long, unsheltered, smooth soil surfaces. The rate and magnitude of soil erosion by wind is controlled by the following factors:. Very fine soil particles are carried high into the air by the wind and transported great distances suspension.
Fine-to-medium size soil particles are lifted a short distance into the air and drop back to the soil surface, damaging crops and dislodging more soil saltation. Larger-sized soil particles that are too large to be lifted off the ground are dislodged by the wind and roll along the soil surface surface creep. The abrasion that results from windblown particles breaks down stable surface aggregates and further increases the soil erodibility. Soil surfaces that are not rough offer little resistance to the wind.
However, ridges left from tillage can dry out more quickly in a wind event, resulting in more loose, dry soil available to blow. Over time, soil surfaces become filled in, and the roughness is broken down by abrasion. This results in a smoother surface susceptible to the wind. Excess tillage can contribute to soil structure breakdown and increased erosion. The speed and duration of the wind have a direct relationship to the extent of soil erosion. Soil moisture levels are very low at the surface of excessively drained soils or during periods of drought, thus releasing the particles for transport by wind.
This effect also occurs in freeze-drying of the soil surface during winter months. Accumulation of soil on the leeward side of barriers such as fence rows, trees or buildings, or snow cover that has a brown colour during winter are indicators of wind erosion. A lack of windbreaks trees, shrubs, crop residue, etc.
Preventing and managing erosion | Environment, land and water | Queensland Government
Knolls and hilltops are usually exposed and suffer the most. The lack of permanent vegetative cover in certain locations results in extensive wind erosion. Loose, dry, bare soil is the most susceptible; however, crops that produce low levels of residue e. In severe cases, even crops that produce a lot of residue may not protect the soil. The most effective protective vegetative cover consists of a cover crop with an adequate network of living windbreaks in combination with good tillage, residue management and crop selection.
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Wind erosion damages crops through sandblasting of young seedlings or transplants, burial of plants or seed, and exposure of seed. Crops are ruined, resulting in costly delays and making reseeding necessary. Plants damaged by sandblasting are vulnerable to the entry of disease with a resulting decrease in yield, loss of quality and market value. Also, wind erosion can create adverse operating conditions, preventing timely field activities. Soil drifting is a fertility-depleting process that can lead to poor crop growth and yield reductions in areas of fields where wind erosion is a recurring problem.
Continual drifting of an area gradually causes a textural change in the soil. Loss of fine sand, silt, clay and organic particles from sandy soils serves to lower the moisture-holding capacity of the soil. This increases the erodibility of the soil and compounds the problem. The removal of wind-blown soils from fence rows, constructed drainage channels and roads, and from around buildings is a costly process. Also, soil nutrients and surface-applied chemicals can be carried along with the soil particles, contributing to off-site impacts. In addition, blowing dust can affect human health and create public safety hazards.
Tillage erosion is the redistribution of soil through the action of tillage and gravity Figure 8. It results in the progressive down-slope movement of soil, causing severe soil loss on upper-slope positions and accumulation in lower-slope positions. This form of erosion is a major delivery mechanism for water erosion. Tillage action moves soil to convergent areas of a field where surface water runoff concentrates. Also, exposed subsoil is highly erodible to the forces of water and wind. Tillage erosion has the greatest potential for the "on-site" movement of soil and in many cases can cause more erosion than water or wind.
Figure 8. Tillage erosion involves the progressive down-slope movement of soil. The rate and magnitude of soil erosion by tillage is controlled by the following factors:. Tillage equipment that lifts and carries will tend to move more soil. As an example, a chisel plow leaves far more crop residue on the soil surface than the conventional moldboard plow but it can move as much soil as the moldboard plow and move it to a greater distance.