They represent calculated counter-responses to Western pressure. They win praise from those in Africa who see the West as representing unalloyed libertinism…. And who could blame them? Additionally, just as progressive apologists for the Soviet Union would find justifications for its most egregious international aggressions, cultural affinities for the new conservative Russia bleed over into excuses for its foreign policy.
But as long as political and cultural leaders in America embrace global openness, Russia will loom as a powerful counterexample for all those with reason to be discontented with Western modernity. In this century, Russia appears to be adopting a similar pose. Censorship shall be prohibited. The Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe in interview to Russian radio Ekho Moskvy said there was pressure on media from authorities in Russia's regions, and situation with the central media caused concerns, as many central TV media looked to lose former independence; his conclusion was that the most important task in Russia was to protect the victories of the law on mass media, and to let journalists work fully independently; yet he said that with all the difficulties the Russian media were free as a whole, and that he was interviewed in a direct broadcast without censorship spoke also about press freedom.
According to journalist Maxim Kononenko , "People invent censorship for themselves, and what happens on some TV channels, some newspapers, happens not because Putin dials them and says: 'No, this mustn't go. Journalists are bought with enormous salaries. In discussions they tell us then how horrible it is to work in the state television service. Since , at the beginning of Vladimir Putin's third presidential term, numerous laws have been passed to make censorship and extensive surveillance easier.
Such measures also led to self-censorship.
According to the report, a confluence of laws aimed at contrasting terrorism and religious hatred and protecting children have led to an environment in which is increasingly hard to distribute fiction, broadcast independent television and promote independent theatre and music productions. Also, according to the Freedom House 's report on freedom of the press, government officials frequently use the country's politicized and corrupt court system to harass journalists and bloggers who expose abuses by authorities. In the Russian legal system the definition of extremism is broad and this make possible for officials to invoke it to silence critical voices.
Enforcement of such legal provisions has encouraged self-censorship in the country. In summer , the Russian State Duma considered Bill which would create a blacklist of Internet sites including child pornography, drug-related material, and extremist material; as well as making providers of telecom services liable for such breaches. Since , the practice of the law enforcement agencies most notably FSB was to abuse newly introduced anti- extremism laws to suppress freedom of speech, including corruption investigations.
After Russia took control of Crimea, the Russian parliament passed a law making it a criminal offense to question Russia's territorial integrity within what the government considers its borders. Russian edition of a popular bestseller 21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari published in had all references to annexation of Crimea and Russian fake news factories removed or replaced by references to Donald Trump fakes. Social media platforms came under increased pressure in In April the founder of Vkontakte , Pavel Durov , announced he'd resign and leave the country due to FSB intimidation, after he refused to hand over the account data of Ukrainian activists.
Media freedom in Russia - Wikipedia
In September Vkontakte was taken over by mail. The Ministry of Justice maintains a list of "extremest materials" which are illegal to share. In an image of Putin as a "gay clown" was added as item ,  as a result of a legal case against social media activist A. Prosecutors in Russia have the custom of charging individuals — including journalists, bloggers, and whistle-blowers — with trumped-up criminal offenses including defamation, extremism, and other common criminal charges, as part of an effort to deter and limit their activities.
Judicial harassment of the blogger and politician Aleksey Navalny continued in In December he was sentenced to three and a half years with suspended sentence together with his brother Oleg Navalny upon fraud charges. Roskomnadzor warned four media that reported on the sentence and relied a video of Navalny calling for demonstration, accusing them of inciting extremism. The government has been using direct ownership , or ownership by large private companies with government links, to control or influence major national media and regional media outlets , especially television.
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There were reports of self-censorship in the television and print media, particularly on issues critical of the government. As to a Mediastandart Foundation survey, most of the Russian journalists feel that they are not free and independent, and believe that media owners undermine the independence of journalists. The same happens on the federal level—major corporations and state institutions exercise influence on the media.
In the 15 years after most of the Russian print media underwent a change of ownership. Many of them disappeared, others changed owners repeatedly. The latter, made them the "chosen ones" in the redistribution of the country's wealth after the Soviet Union's dissolution. Over 5 years between and the government forced changes of ownership over 12 significant newsrooms with all-country reach, all of them previously associated with honest and independent reporting.
All but one national TV channel are fully or partially owned by the state. The last channel — NTV — is owned by Gazprom , in which the state has a controlling stake.
The situation in the radio market is similar. Major information channels are somehow controlled by the state. In , the BBC has stated in recent years, that companies with close links to the Government, state-owned Gazprom among them, have bought several of the most influential papers. As to t he IREX association Media Sustainability Index, i n smaller cities, private independent media are often the only sources of local news, because local municipal newspapers publish only official information.
Russian antimonopoly regulation is still evolving, with many uncertainties and compliance challenges remaining. Many of the key provisions of the Competition Law are unclear and open to interpretation.
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For this reason, they require further interpretation by Russian courts. Moreover, governmental control over media is in addition exercised through the distribution of state subsidies and advertising revenues. Observers have noted the loss of the independence of national television stations. Instead, state-controlled energy giant Gazprom owns NTV. Russia TV Rossiya covers Channel One Pervyj Kanal covers According to the Committee to Protect Journalists , "All three major television networks are now in the hands of Kremlin loyalists.
Moreover, TV6 , a media outlet owned by Berezovsky, was closed in using a legal loophole. Along with that, plenty of media outlets actively develop now while state participation in them is minimal. On 29 January , the largest Russian TV providers, after key politicians expressed their discontent, disconnected Dozhd channel in response to a survey on its website and in live "Dilettants" discussing program.
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The survey asked if Leningrad should have been surrendered to the invading Nazi army in order to save hundreds of thousands of lives. Top state television channels frequently apply self-censorship , avoiding any controversial topics that might impact the public image of the authorities. For example, massive truck drivers protests across the country were never even mentioned in the First Channel in spite of wide coverage in local and independent media and requests of the viewers.
Major information channels are in one way or another controlled by the state. Such list includes the ownership of TV channels and on-demand services.
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Kommersant -Vlast, Expert, and the New Times are weeklies that provide serious analysis of the current political issues. However, they are owned by oligarchs who openly support the government. Most popular websites, if they are not internationally owned such as Google and Facebook, are state-owned or owned by a couple of influential businessmen such as Alexander Mamut and Alisher Usmanov. Russian media executives bought the stakes in both transactions. The Moscow Times subsequently switched from daily to weekly publication, and its chief editor resigned due to conflicts with the new owner.
The new publisher of Forbes said that the magazine would carry fewer stories on politics and focus on business and economics. As reported by Clifford J. Levy in a New York Times article, all Vladimir Putin 's opponents are being made to vanish from Russian television. They are blacklisted and not allowed to appear in television shows. In one example, a presentation critical of Putin's policies has been digitally erased. As reported by Russian scientist Sergey L. On 16 October , Kommersant newspaper reported that the owner of private television channels REN TV and Channel 5 had made changes to the managing structures of the channels.
Referring to an anonymous source, Kommersant stated that as the result these channels would cease to broadcast independent news; instead, since they would receive the news from the state channel RT known as Russia Today unil Only through these channeles opposition politicians are aired, as well as other events adversed by authorities are reported " However, the head of a REN-TV analytical news program "Week" Marianna Maksimovskaya was quoted by Kommersant as saying she held optimistic about the new executive director of REN-TV and sure that its editorial policy won't be altered.
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On 22 October , Alexander Orjonikize, a former head of REN-TV, and now CEO of National Media Group that owns TV channels in question, said that while the possibility of partnership in order to produce more saturated and interesting news is discussed, "it's important to note that whatever business strategy would be chosen in that direction, editorial policy regarding news and its informational contents will not be altered.
Channel 5 employs 1, people in Saint Petersburg. On 19 October , employees of the TV channel published an open letter to the top Russian politicians, concerned over a possibility of mass dismissals. I don't even understand how could it be used in our project. It's the TV channel which makes programs for the abroad audience in English and Arab languages.
How does that relate to Channel 5?