# Manual Markov Processes and Learning Models

How a Markov Model Works Fantastic! You already may have learned a few things, but now here comes the meat of the article. Lets start from a high level definition of What a Markov Model is according to Wikipedia :. Sounds interesting…but what does that huge blob even mean? I bolded the critical portion of what a Markov Model is. In summary, a Markov Model is a model where the next state is solely chosen based on the current state. One way to think about it is you have a window that only shows the current state or in our case a single token and then you have to determine what the next token is based on that small window!

Above, I showed how each token leads to another token. Additionally, I colored the arrow leading to the next word based on the origin key. I recommend you spend some time on this diagram and the following ones because they build the foundation of how Markov Models work! In this case it forms pairs of one token to another token! Above, I simply organized the pairs by their first token. Then above I trimmed the pairs down even further into something very interesting.

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Every key is matched with an array of possible tokens that could follow that key. Every key has possible words that could follow it. If we were to give this structure from above to someone they could potentially recreate our original sentence! Being that there is only key that follows we have to pick it.

But seriously…think about it. We used the current state current key to determine our next state. Further our next state could only be a key that follows the current key. Sounds cool, but it gets even cooler! Look closely, each oval with a word inside it represents a key with the arrows pointing to potential keys that can follow it! But wait it gets even cooler:. Each arrow has a probability that it will be selected to be the path that the current state will follow to the next state. In summary, we now understand and have illustrated a Markov Model by using the Dr.

Seuss starter sentence. Full Example Summary You made it! But guess what! Larger Example Keeping in the spirit of Dr. Seuss quotes I went ahead and found four quotes that Theodor Seuss Geisel has immortalized:.

- The Annals of Probability.
- From “What is a Markov Model” to “Here is how Markov Models Work” - By.
- Markov Processes and learning models - M. Frank Norman - Google книги;
- From “What is a Markov Model” to “Here is how Markov Models Work”!
- Cahiers du Cinéma: 1960-1968: New Wave, New Cinema, Reevaluating Hollywood (Harvard Film Studies);
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The biggest difference between the original starter sentence and our new sentence is the fact that some keys follow different keys a variable amount of times. So what will this additional complexity do to our Markov Model construction? The inner dictionary is severing as a histogram - it is soley keeping track of keys and their occurrences! Well, we will get different distribution of words which is great and will impact the entire structure, but in the larger scope of generating natural unique generated sentences you should aim to have at minimum 20, tokens.

It would be better if you would have at least ,, tokens.

## Theodorescu : Review: M. Frank Norman, Markov Processes and Learning Models

TENA - Examination, 3. The examiner may apply another examination format when re-examining individual students.

Further information about the course can be found on the Course web at the link below. Information on the Course web will later be moved to this site. All members of a group are responsible for the group's work. In any assessment, every student shall honestly disclose any help received and sources used. In an oral assessment, every student shall be able to present and answer questions about the entire assignment and solution. The current examples we have worked with have been first order markov models.

If we use a second order Markov Model our window size would be two! The window is the data in the current state of the Markov Model and is what is used for decision making. If there is a bigger window in a smaller data set it is unlikely that there will be large unique distributions for the possible outcomes from one window therefore it could only recreate the same sentences. Very interesting! Any observations? This reveals a potential issue you can face with Markov Models…if you do not have a large enough corpus you will likely only generate sentences within the corpus which is not generating anything unique.

Basically it is a histogram built using a dictionary because dictionaries has the unique property of having constant lookup time O 1! The dictogram class can be created with an iterable data set, such as a list of words or entire books. It is also good to note that I made two functions to return a random word.

## Hidden Markov Models - An Introduction

One just picks a random key and the other function takes into account the amount of occurrences for each word and then returns a weighted random word! In my implementation I have a dictionary that stores windows as the key in the key-value pair and then the value for each key is a dictogram.

We do this because a tuple is a great way to represent a single list. Parse Markov Model Yay!! Otherwise, you start the generated data with a starting state which I generate from valid starts , then you just keep looking at the possible keys by going into the dictogram for that key that could follow the current state and make a decision based on probability and randomness weighted probability.

We keep repeating this until we do it length times!

## Hidden Markov model

Applications Some classic examples of Markov models include peoples actions based on weather, the stock market, and tweet generators! Think about what would change? Hint: Not too much, if you have a solid understanding of what, why, and how Markov Models work and can be created the only difference will be how you parse the Markov Model and if you add any unique restrictions. Further Reading Now that you have a good understanding of what a Markov Model is maybe you could explore how a Hidden Markov Model works. Or maybe if you are more inclined to build something using your new found knowledge you could read my artcile on building a HBO Silicon Valley Tweet Generator using a markov model coming soon!

### Introduction

Alexander Dejeu alexdejeu. Tweet This. Full Example Summary B. Larger Example 2. Bigger Windows C. Parse Markov Model D. Applications 2. Further Reading 3. Hacker Noon is how hackers start their afternoons.

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