Cross-border integration of electricity markets creates new challenges for the regulators, since the evolution of the market is now influenced by the characteristics and policies of neighbouring countries. There is still no agreement on why and how regions should integrate their electricity markets.
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The aim of this thesis is to improve the understanding of integrated electricity markets and how their behaviour depends on the prevailing characteristics of the national markets and the policies implemented in each country. We developed a simulation model to analyse under what circumstances integration is desirable. This model is used to study three cases of interconnection between two countries.
Several policies regarding interconnection expansion and operation, combined with different generation capacity adequacy mechanisms, are evaluated. The thesis is composed of three papers. In general, we conclude that electricity market integration can bring benefits if the right policies are implemented.
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However, a large interconnection capacity is only desirable if the countries exhibit significant complementarity and trust each other. The outcomes of policies aimed at guaranteeing security of supply at a national level can be quite counterintuitive due to the interactions between neighbouring countries and their effects on interconnection and generation investments.
Thus, it is important for regulators to understand these interactions and coordinate their decisions in order to take advantage of the interconnection without putting security of supply at risk. But it must be taken into account that even when integration brings benefits to the region, some market participants lose and might try to hinder the integration process. This thesis deals with combinatorics, order theory and descriptive set theory. The first contribution is to the theory of well-quasi-orders wqo and better-quasi-orders bqo.
Our proof relies on new results with both a combinatorial and a topological flavour concerning maps from a front into a compact metric space. The second contribution is of a more applied nature and deals with topological spaces. We define a quasi-order on the subsets of every second countable T0 topological space in a way that generalises the Wadge quasi-order on the Baire space, while extending its nice properties to virtually all these topological spaces.
The Wadge quasi-order of reducibility by continuous functions is wqo on Borel subsets of the Baire space, this quasi-order is however far less satisfactory for other important topological spaces such as the real line, as Hertling, Ikegami and Schlicht notably ob-served. Some authors have therefore studied reducibility with respect to some classes of discontinuous functions to remedy this situation.
We propose instead to keep continuity but to weaken the notion of function to that of relation. Using the notion of admissible representation studied in Type-2 theory of effectivity, we define the quasi-order of re-ducibility by relatively continuous relations. We show that this quasi-order both refines the classical hierarchies of complexity and is wqo on the Borel subsets of virtually every second countable T0 space — including every quasi- Polish space. Nous avons suivi une approche Design Science pour la conception de ce cadre conceptuel.
Post-industrial societies depend on efficiency and sustainability of their industrial production which is controlled by specialized industrial automation computer systems.
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Industrial automation is dominated by global companies with proprietary solutions and relies on technologies largely replaced in other computer markets. Companies operating in this mature market constantly improve their operations and manage technology disruptions. Related decisions are based on a combination of facts, emotions and personal agendas. We study three trends in industrial automation with two research projects observing competitiveness improvements through outsourcing and process improvement and one exploring the management outlook concerning rapid technology developments in adjacent high volume markets.
Globalization moves industrial facilities between continents and creates larger units. Responding to the changing environment requires companies to focus on core competences, process improvements and customer experience. Core competence focus leads to outsourcing or insourcing of selected activities. It is not merely a low cost engineering pool but has responsibility for complete subsystems. Since employee commitment and low attrition rate are key for success of this model, the company focuses on employee satisfaction and develop a brand as an good local employer.
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Next we research support process improvement from the customer perspective and implement a new support process based on an end-to-end lead-time measurement system for reduction and faster resolution of customer issues. Shipment volumes of smartphones and tablets exceed all earlier computing technologies. As the last trend we research management views on the future from the perspectives of customers, incumbents and newcomers. To benefit from the new technologies a disruption management function is considered necessary and a new quantitative model for disruption assessment is proposed.
The emergence of powerful new technologies, the existence of large quantities of data, and increasing demands for the extraction of added value from these technologies and data have created a number of significant challenges for those charged with both corporate and information technology management. The possibilities are great, the expectations high, and the risks significant. Data owners have responsibilities towards the subjects of the data and must also, frequently, demonstrate that they are in compliance with current standards, laws and regulations.
This thesis sets out to explore the nature of the technologies that organisations might utilise, identify the most pertinent constraints and risks, and propose a framework for the management of data from discovery to external hosting that will allow the most significant risks to be managed through the definition, implementation, and performance of appropriate internal control activities. Risk management is often assessed through linear methods which stress positioning and causal logical frameworks: to such events correspond such consequences and such risks accordingly.
Consideration of the interrelationships between risks is often overlooked and risks are rarely analyzed in their dynamic and nonlinear components. This work shows what systemic methods, including the study of complex systems, are likely to bring to knowledge, management, anticipation of business risks, both on the conceptual and the practical sides. Based on the definitions of systems and risks in various areas, as well as methods used to manage risk, this work confronts these concepts with approaches of complex systems analysis and modeling.
This work highlights the reducing effects of some business risk analysis methods as well as limitations of risk universes caused in particular by unsuitable definitions.
As a result this work also provides chief officers with a range of different tools and approaches which allows them a better understanding of complexity and as such a gain in efficiency in their risk management practices. It results in a better fit between strategy and risk management. Ultimately the firm gains in its maturity of risk management.
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This computing and technological revolution engenders many changes in social relationships and permits numerous applications that are destined to simplify our lives. Amine Bekkouche takes a closer look at the issue of e-government as an important consequence of ICTs, following the example of electronic commerce. First, he presents a synthesis of the main concepts in e-government as well as a panoramic view of the global situation in this domain. Subsequently, he studies e-government in view of emerging countries, in particular through the illustration of a country in representative development.
Thereafter, he broadens these proposals to other domains and formulates recommendations that help their implementation.
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Finally, he concludes with perspectives that may constitute further research tracks and enable the elaboration of development projects, through the appropriation of ICTs, in order to improve the condition of the administered, and more generally, that of the citizen. Many everyday life problems involve finding an optimal solution among a finite set of possibilities, deemed the problem search space.
In practice, enumerating all the possibilities becomes infeasible beyond a given problem size, but there exist approximate methods. In the most general case, these methods start with a candidate solution and gradually refine it through partial modifications until no improvement is possible. The variation operation, by connecting candidate solutions, induces a neighborhood structure in the search space, such that the search process can be described as a trajectory over this configuration space.
Heuristic methods try to guide the search towards better solutions. Their performance, therefore, depends on the structure of the space being searched. In this thesis, we analyze such structure by looking at the graph having as nodes solutions that are locally optimal and that act as attractors to the search trajectory, and as edges the possible transitions between those local optima.
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This allows us to employ methods from the science of complex networks in order to characterize in a novel way the search space of hard combinatorial problems; we argue that such network characterization can advance our understanding of the structural and dynamical properties of these spaces.
We investigate several methodologies to build the network of local optima and we apply our approach to prototypical problems such as the Quadratic Assignment Problem, the NK model of rugged landscapes, and the Permutation Flow-shop Scheduling Problem.
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We show that some network metrics can differentiate problem classes, correlate with problem non-linearity, and help to predict problem hardness as measured from the performances of trajectory-based search heuristics. Enterprise-wide architecture has become a necessity for organizations to re align information technology IT to changing business requirements. Both are characterized as dynamic super-systems that need to address the evolving interest of various architecture stakeholders. Further, both should simultaneously adhere to a set of principles to guide the evolution of architecture towards the expected benefits.
To bridge this gap, this dissertation contains three interrelated research streams examining the principles and adoption of enterprise-wide architecture. The first research stream investigates organizational intricacies inherent in architecture adoption. It characterizes architecture adoption as an ongoing organizational adaptation process.
By analyzing organizational response behaviors in this adaptation process, it also identifies four archetypes that represent very diverse architecture approaches. The second research stream ontologically clarifies the nature of architecture principles along with outlining new avenues for theoretical contributions.
This research stream also provides an empirically validated set of principles and proposes a research model illustrating how principles can be applied to generate expected architecture benefits. The third research stream examines architecture adoption in multinational corporations MNCs.
MNCs are specified by unique organizational characteristics that constantly strive for balancing global integration and local responsiveness. To conclude, this dissertation provides a thorough explanation of a long-term journey in which organizations learn over time to adopt an effective architecture approach. It also clarifies the role of principles to purposefully guide the aforementioned learning process. There is a lack of dedicated tools for business model design at a strategic level.